Ingredients for better sleep:
* Valerian Root Extract
* Lemon Balm
Ingredients for stress management and relaxation:
* Lemon Balm
Ingredients for intense headache symptoms:
* Riboflavin or Vitamin B2
* Butterbur Extract
Ingredients for recovery from physical and mental fatigue:
Ingredients for performance and overall health:
* Milk Thistle Extract
Science and information behind the ingredients and their dosages:
(There are a few vitamins and minerals in this formula. Which means we had to take into consideration the dosages of these nutrients already present in our Pinnacle Multis. If you are not already taking either The Pinnacle Men's or Women's Multi, then we highly recommend that you consider investing in 1 of these products as well. The combined dosages from The Pinnacle Multis and this formula will give you the clinical dosages. We did this because we want you to be able to take both products and NOT have to worry about going over The Upper Limit for any nutrients. That was a major concern for us because going over Upper Limits could possibly cause toxicities in your body.)
Riboflavin or Vitamin B2 (24 mg) - There is also more than 1 mg in both The Pinnacle Men's and Women's Multis.
Several studies have indicated this vitamin helps with intense headache symptoms, including a meta-analysis. (1) It has shown success at high dosages such as 400 mg, but there is also evidence that the dosage does not need to be that high. (2) A study has shown that 25 mg is just as effective as 400 mg. (3) There is also a study that demonstrates only 27 mg can be absorbed by the body at once anyway. (4)
Zinc as Amino Acid Chelate (3.25 mg) - There is also 8 mg in The Pinnacle Women's Multi and 11 mg in The Pinnacle Men's Multi.
This mineral has shown benefits for quality of sleep when taken at 11.25 mg, alongside magnesium at 225 mg and melatonin at 5 mg. (5) Both of those ingredients are also in this product at proper dosages. Even though The Pinnacle Multis already have more than 7 mg of zinc, it's worth pointing out that 7 mg has been shown to decrease anger in another study. (6) The zinc is also chelated, meaning it's bound to an amino acid. Chelated zinc has shown far superior absorption and bioavailability than the regular form of zinc typically found in supplements. (7)
Magnesium as Glycinate (65 mg) - There is also 160 mg in The Pinnacle Women's Multi and 210 mg in The Pinnacle Men's Multi.
We refer to that same study that showed the improved quality of sleep when taken at 225 mg, alongside 11.25 mg of zinc and 5 mg of melatonin. (5) This mineral also has a lot of research demonstrating that it plays a key role in people's mood. (8) Which means it is critical to be consuming adequate amounts of magnesium to stay in a good state of mind. (9) The magnesium is also chelated, which is what the word "glycinate" is referring to. This is because of the superior absorption and bioavailability of chelated minerals. (7)
L-Glycine (3,000 mg) - This amino acid has had a great deal of research done on it for sleep at this dosage. 3,000 mg has demonstrated better sleep quality and efficacy. (10) This dosage has also decreased fatigue and improved liveliness/vigilance the next day in several studies. (11) (12)
Lemon Balm or Melissa Officinalis (1,200 mg) - This relaxing herb has its fair share of research as well. 1,200 mg has been shown to improve anxiety and sleep scores. (13) While another study has shown that it improves mood and calmness. (14) Plus, there is a study that used a combination of lemon balm with another ingredient in this product, valerian root, that also confirmed the ingredient's sleep benefits. (15)
KSM-66® Ashwagandha (600 mg) - This trademarked root extract is one of the most well studied supplement ingredients in the world. Ashwagandha is referred to as an adaptogen, meaning it should help the body resist stressors. This also means that it has a very well-rounded assortment of benefits. It has numerous studies demonstrating its improvement of sleep at 600 mg. (16) (17) It has also been shown to decrease stress, while improving general well-being and quality of life. (18) (19)
However, these are not its only benefits. Studies have demonstrated its ability to improve performance, overall health, and recovery at this dosage. 600 mg has improved strength (20), muscle size (20), VO2 max (21), and endurance performance (22), while decreasing body fat (23) and muscle damage. (20) Which makes this ingredient so much more than just a great sleep and relaxation supplement.
Milk Thistle Extract (525 mg with 80% Silymarin Flavonoids) - This herb has traditionally been used as a body cleanser, specifically for the liver. This traditional use has been supported by research demonstrating it has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. (24) It has clinically been shown to help people with a variety of liver issues at dosages up to 420 mg silymarin flavonoids. (25) (26) It has also been studied for OCD, making it plausible that it has some calming properties. (27)
Generally speaking, we know most people look for milk thistle to detoxify their liver after consuming certain substances (e.g. alcohol, medications, pain relievers like ibuprofen). However, the best time for this herb to work is after you consume these substances. Which is why we have included it in our night time formula; that way you are most likely taking it after you have taken these substances.
Valerian Root Extract (450 mg with 0.8% Valerenic Acid) - This herb is a very well-known sleep aid. Several studies have backed this up by showing it is very effective for improving sleep quality and sleep latency; both alone and in combination with lemon balm. (28) (15) We chose 450 mg as the dosage because 450 mg has been shown to improve sleep just as effectively as 900 mg. (29)
GABA (200 mg) - This amino acid works as a neurotransmitter in your brain. It can decrease activity in your nervous system and brain, which could cause a calming effect. This is why we have included it in our night time formula.
It has also demonstrated other benefits for recovery, performance, and overall health. A low dosage of 50 mg has been shown to decrease physical and psychological fatigue. (30) And it has shown improvements in body composition by increasing fat-free mass at 100 mg. (31) Plus, taking up to 200 mg has shown benefits for cognitive function when taken for an extended period of time. (32) (33) This all makes GABA another outstanding, well-rounded supplement.
L-Theanine (200 mg) - There is also 200 mg in both The Pinnacle Men's and Women's Multis.
This amino acid is most commonly found in green tea leaves. 200 mg has been clinically shown to have anti-stress effects in several studies. (34) (35) Plus, a systematic review of the research has concluded that 200-400 mg helps with anxiety and stress. (36) Which is why we also included another 200 mg in The Pinnacle Multis. This way you are getting the most effective dosage over the course of the day for stress.
Butterbur Extract (150 mg with 15% Petasins) - This herb has been studied for many different potential benefits. One clear benefit it has demonstrated in the research is for intense headache symptoms. (37) An extract standardized for 15% Petasins has been tested up to 150 mg with successful results. (38) Another benefit worth mentioning is that it has also been shown to help with allergy symptoms at this dosage. (39)
Melatonin (5 mg) - This is a naturally occurring hormone in your body that plays a large role in your sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythm. However, many people's natural production of this hormone have decreased. This happens with age and with disrupted light-dark cycles. Most people still have lights on in their home and stare at screens after the sun goes down. Which is why this has become a popular sleep aid.
We have chosen 5 mg because that is the dosage with the most solid body of evidence. Several studies indicate 5 mg improves sleep parameters, both by itself and in combination with other supplements. (40) (5) And a meta-analysis concluded that melatonin not only decreases time to fall asleep and increases total sleep time, but also that these effects do not appear to go away with continued use. Which means you can take it consistently. (41) This meta-analysis also concluded that higher dosages are more effective than lower dosages. A Cochrane-Analysis came to a similar conclusion by saying 5 mg helps people fall asleep faster and sleep better than 0.5 mg. It also states that doses above 5 mg do not appear to be any more effective, making 5 mg the best dosage. (42) Plus, it's worth mentioning that melatonin has shown benefits for intense headache symptoms in one study. (43)